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Self cleaning textile - an overview

By : technicaltextile.net
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Mr. Tanveer Malik

Faculty in Shri Vaishnav Institute of Technology and Science

Shriraj Nogja and Purva Goyal

Students of Final Year Textile S.V.I.T.S. Indore


Water and soil repellency has been one of the major targets for fiber and textile scientists and manufacturers for centuries. Combinations of new materials for fiber production with a variety of surface treatments have been developed to reach the condition of limited wettability.

Nature has already developed an elegant approach that combines chemistry and physics to create super repellant surfaces as well as self cleaning surfaces. Lotus leaves is the best example of self cleaning surfaces. The concept of self cleaning textiles is based on the lotus plant whose leaves are well-known for their ability to self-clean by repelling water and dirt. More recently, botany and nanotechnology have united to explore not only the beauty and cleanliness of the leaf, but also its lack of contamination and bacteria, despite its dwelling in dirty ponds.

Basically, the lotus leaf has two levels of structure affecting this behavior micro-scale bumps and nano-scale hair-like structures coupled with the leafs waxy chemical composition. On the basis of lotus leaf concept scientist developed a new concept Self cleaning textile the textile surface which can be cleaned itself without using any laundering action.

Now a days peoples are very busy in their work that they do not have time for clean their daily wear cloths also people who are working in kitchens having headache to wash their garments. Also military peoples have to survive in such drastic condition that they cannot wash their cloths.

Nano technology provides a new concept self cleaning textiles which gives self cleaning as well as fresh cloths every day, this not only technically benefited but techno economically also benefited.


Nanotechnology has real commercial potential for the textile industry. This is mainly due to the fact that conventional methods used to impart different properties to Fabrics often do not lead to permanent effects, and will lose their functions after Laundering or wearing. Nanotechnology can provide high durability for fabrics, because nano-particles have a large surface area-to-volume ratio and high surface energy, thus presenting better affinity for fabrics and leading to an increase in durability of the function. In addition, a coating of nano-particles on fabrics will not affect their breath ability or hand feel. Therefore, the interest in using nanotechnologies in the textile industry is increasing.

There are basically two types of self-cleaning surfaces involving nanotechnology. In the first place extremely water repellent, microscopically rough surfaces: dirt particles can hardly get a hold on them and are, therefore, removed by rain or by a simple rinse in water .The second example is given by photo-catalytic layers: due to a layer of nanocrystalline titanium oxide, fouling organic material is destroyed by solar irradiation.

Self cleaning surface having a water contact angle greater than 150degree and a very low roll off angle. Water through these surfaces easily rolls off and completely cleans the surface in the process. Self cleaning fabrics not only resist coffee and red wine stains but are also repellant to water, dirt, odour and are antibacterial as well.


The self cleaning textiles can be manufactured by application of either fluorocarbons or by nanotechnology.


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