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Advantages of jute as natural bast fibre for different technical textiles

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Advantages of jute as natural bast fibre for different technical textiles

By: Ashis Kumar Samanta


Textiles and products manufactured for technical performance and functional properties are known as technical textiles. Ashis Kumar Samanta looks closely at the use of jute in these textiles.


Clothing is not the only use to which fabric is put. So-called technical textile materials and products are used in a large variety of applications other than normal clothing. They come in twelve major categories.


For instance, fabric used to package products and crops or cereals including wheat, rice, potato, tobacco, tea leaf and coffee beans is called packaging textile (Pack-Tech). Those used in household furnishing, home crafts and floor coverings are called home textiles (Home-Tech). Fabric used as soil saver for hill slopes, protection materials or as geosynthetics for underlay or overlay in road construction, are geo textiles (Geo-Tech). Cloth used as mulch or as sapling pots or as fruit nets are agricultural textiles (Agro-Tech). Fabric used in automotive furnishings in cars, railways and aviation as components like door panels, tyre cords and fuel filters are automobile textiles (Mobil-Tech).


Those used as rigid fibre reinforced composites for wood and structural substitutes are build textiles (Build-Tech). Fabric used as rope, twine or as conveyor belting and cordage are industrial textiles (Indu-Tech); for use as filter fabric for chimney hot air/gases or effluent are eco-textiles (Eco-Tech/Oeko-Tech); for use as fire retardant, heat and cold insulated or sound insulated or pesticide barrier or rain protection are protective textiles (Pro-Tech); for use as any sports goods from textiles like swim wear, athletic wear, badminton racket etc are sports textiles (Sports-Tech); for use as bandage, suture and leucoplast, sanitary pad are medical textiles (Medi-Tech); and specialised clothing for astronauts, defence services, intelligent textile wear or smart textile wear (chemolinic or chromotropic, thermotropic etc) are clothing textiles (Cloth-Tech).


To engineer such technical textiles, the selection of high performance fibres and design of right textile products for specific end use are essential. In some major application areas, fabric or fibrous components or their combinations are selected primarily, but not exclusively, for specific performance. These include moisture or water or air transportation, filtration, insulation from heat and thermal degradation. The engineering design and production of such end-use specific technical textiles requires intensive research and development. So, there is need to maintain extensive evaluation standards for suitability in the intended end-use.


Use of commodity fibres for manufacture of technical textile, however, centres around polypropylene, polyester and nylon chiefly, for tensile, flexural and torsional property, fatigue and abrasion resistance, compressional resilience, surface tension, thermal, hydrolic, hygral, sonic behaviour, thermal conductivity/resistance or insulation, electrical conductivity/resistance, microbial resistance, UV resistance, absorbency and breathability. For example, the designer of swimwear as competitive and high performance sports textiles has to design for water repellence and frictionless swimming.

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