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Development of cost effective filter fabrics suitable for bag filters
By Pooja Shah, Iceland
Guide Name : Dr. H. D. Joshi
Institute :MANTRA
Area of Research : Industrial Textiles (Filteration)
Development of cost effective filter fabrics suitable for bag filters

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter or biological material that can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms or cause damage to the natural environment. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on Earth. Air pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets or gases. Bag house is a generic term for Air Pollution Control Equipment (APCE) that is designed around the use of engineered fabric filter tubes, envelopes or cartridges in the dust capturing, separation or filtration process. Bag houses can be found in virtually every industry – foundry and steel production, pharmaceuticals, chemical producers, food manufacturers, etc. The “one size fits all” concept has never been applicable to filtration and hence there is much scope for optimization and development of filter fabrics. If a filter fabric having greater filtration efficiency/ lower dust emission, longer life, lower maintenance and cost can be developed, it would provide tangible benefits to the user. In the present project, filter fabrics have been developed to optimize some of these properties. Although glass fibre bag filters are available, they are mostly in plain weave. In this project, we have developed PTFE finished woven glass fibre bag filters in different weaves. Filter fabrics are usually tested for physical and mechanical properties subsequent to usage and application. However, it is also necessary to measure the filter performance in terms of air permeability, filtration efficiency, cleaning efficiency and pressure drop. Fabrics having particular air permeability and filtration efficiency may be used in a particular type of industry. Besides the capital costs of a filter, there are additional factors that affect overall filtration economics viz., (1) process requirements (2) maintenance requirements (3) design considerations (4) maintenance procedures and (5) time-between change out.

 

The efficiency of the filter media used in a dust collector does not equate to dust collector efficiency, the filter media is just one component of the bag filter, and the filter bag is just one component of the dust collector system. Bag filters come in various configurations and materials of construction. For bag filters, maximum flow rates, dirt holding capacity and materials of construction and style (microfibre, mesh, felt, binder, resin finished, seams or seamless, etc. vary by manufacturer. For bag filters style (microsibre, mesh, felt seams or seamless, etc.) vary widely. The design of the bag and materials of construction control the surface area, dirt holding capacity and maximum flow rates the filter can withstand. The dirt holding capacity of a bag filter varies gradually as the construction moves from a mesh or felt, single or multilayer construction to a pleated bag. The increase in the dirt holding capacity is filters surface area. Analysis of filter flow channels and flow chambers reveals that improved filterability and particle removal capabilities are directly related to the filter surface area that is available.

There are two types of dry filtration media in use today – depth filtration media and surface filtration media. Depth filtration media requires maintaining a dust cake on the filter bag to achieve effective efficiency. Surface filtration media utilizes an additional barrier on the filtration fabric as the filtering layer. These fabrics (e.g. PTFE laminated can achieve perfect efficiency, but the filtration fabric is just one of many components contributing to dust collection efficiency. Filter fabrics are tested for mechanical properties before use and application in a particular industry. From a practical viewpoint, air permeability and filtration efficiency may be used to evaluate the performance of filter fabrics.

 

Thus, twelve different following woven and nonwoven samples were prepared and industrial trials were undertaken. Performance evaluation was also conducted by actual industrial trials and from SPM readings it was concluded that bags developed by MANTRA performed better than one already installed.

 


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