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Effect of nanosiver application on antimicrobial finishing
Technology Raw material

Effect of nanosiver application on antimicrobial finishing

Mr. M. Parthiban*, Dr. S. Gunasekaran**
&
Silambarasan, Sakthi Srinivasan, Seetharaman, Karthika***

Abstract

Microbial infestation poses danger to both living and non living matters. Obnoxious smell from the inner garments such as socks spread of diseases; staining and degradation of textiles are some of the detrimental effects of bad microbes. Though the use of antimicrobials have been known for the decades it is only in the recent couple of years several attempts have been made for finishing textiles with antimicrobial compounds. The consumers are now increasingly aware of the hygienic life style and there is a necessity and expectation for a wide range of textile products finished with antimicrobial properties. The new developments such as non-leaching type of finishes would help reduce the ill effects and possibly could comply with the statutory requirements imposed by regulating agencies. Nano Silver technology is opening up a world of exciting new possibilities in today’s quest for a safer and healthier environment. This project is dealt with finishing using Nano silver and assessing their antimicrobial properties.

1 Introduction

The inherent properties of textile fibers provide room for the growth of micro-organisms. Besides, the structure of the substrates and the chemical processes may induce the growth of microbes. Humid and warm environment still aggravate the problem. Infestation by microbes cause cross infection by pathogens and development odor where the fabric is worn next to skin. In addition the staining and loss of the performance properties of textile substrates are the result of microbial attack. Basically, with a view to protect the wearer and the textile substrate it self antimicrobial finish is applied to textile materials. The next big thing that will ensure a safer, healthier environment measures no more than 3nm in size: Nano silver. Where ever bacteria, mould and mildew and fungi can cause unwelcome odors or product degradation, there is a Nano silver treatment to solve the problem.






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* Faculty of Textile Technology (Fashion Tech), PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore – 641 004
** Professor, Dept of Microbiology, TNAU, Coimbatore.
*** Dept of Textile Chemistry, SSM College of Engineering, Komarapalayam.

Email: parthi_mtech@yahoo.com, guna1954@yahoo.com

2 Materials & Methods

2.1 Fabric Samples:

Polyester/Cotton

Color: yellow
Type of construction: Single Knit
Count: 20s
GSM: 150
Diameter: 24

Cotton/Lycra
Color: Red
Type of construction: Single Knit
Count: 40s
GSM: 170
Diameter: 20

100% Cotton
Color: Creamy White
Type of construction: Single Knit
Count: 20s
GSM: 225
Diameter: 20

3 Chemicals

Ultra Fresh Silpure FBR-5


Ultra Fresh Silpure FBR-5 is an antimicrobial treatment for textiles. It is supplied as a two component system, Ultra Fresh Silpure FBR-5 activator (part A) and Ultra Fresh Silpure FBR-5 (part B), which is specifically formulated for use with part A. the combined product is designed for use in textile padding applications, and engineered for controlled release of silver ions, in a unique light stable form, providing control of bacterial growth even after extensive launderings.

4 Nano- Silver

Durable for the life of the garment, even on hard-to-treat fabrics:

» No discoloration
» Natural silver technology
» Priced for mass market use
» Every fiber treated and protected

A parternership of Ultra-Fresh experience and nanotechnology makes silver protection available to all.Nano silver uses proprietary nanotechnology to produce the ultra fine silver practices essential to ease of application and long term production.


Now, silver can be used as easily as any other Nano silver treatment, in any type of textile. Application is at finishing stage, providing protection against odour causing bacteria to every fibre in the fabric. Silver antimicrobial treatment is no longer an expensive solution practical only in high- value niche market. Nano silver is formulated and priced mass market use. The added value of pure silver protection is now within every manufacturer’s research.

Pure silver the natural antimicrobial

Silver has the power to fight bacteria. The power to fight contamination and maintain freshness. That has been known since earliest history. Water or wine stored in a silver container would stay fresh for longer than in any other material. Medical science makes good use of silver’s antimicrobial power, in treatments for burns, wound and eye infections. Silver ions in a 100% inorganic alumino silicate carrier are released through a unique ion exchange process. Moisture in the air causes a controlled release at a slow, steady rate to provide excellent protection for decades.

But until now more widespread applications for the healing powers silver were limited. There was no cost-effective technology for reducing the metal to the small particle size necessary for optimum performance

5 Test Program

More than 60 sequential formulations were developed and tested with the intention of developing a product that would last for 50 home launderings on 100% cotton, polyester/cotton (63/37), cotton/ lycra 86/14). This fabric was chosen as it is most difficult fabric to treat for antimicrobial protection. At the same time, it is the fabric of choice for many of the toughest performance garment applications.

Application of Nano silver without Softener:

1) 100% cotton


Fabric previously dyed Blend; 8% Ultra-Fresh Silpure activator FBR-5(part A), 92% Ultra Fresh Silpure (part B) 100g/L blend in pad bath, target 2.5% owg (25% pickup) Fabric padded et on dry, no other additives Line speed 36m/min, dried at 175c for 45seconds.

2) 63%polyester / 37% cotton

Fabric previously dyed

Blend; 8% Ultra-fresh Silpure activator FBR-5(part A), 92%Ulra-Fresh Silpure FBR-5(part B) 45g/L Blend in bath, target 2.5% owg (55% pick up) Fabric padded wet on dry, with no other additives Dried at 120C, cured at 173c for 40 seconds.


3) 86% cotton / 14% Lycra

Fabric previously dyed Blend; 8% Ultra-Fresh Silpure activator FBR-5(part A), 92% Ultra Fresh Silpure (part B)100g/L Blend in pad bath, target 2.5% owg (25% pickup) Fabric padded et on dry, no other additives Line speed 36m/min, dried at 175c for 45seconds.

Application of Nano silver with softener:

1) 100% cotton


Fabric previously dyed Blend; 8% Ultra-Fresh Silpure activator FBR-5(part A), 92% Ultra Fresh Silpure (part B) 100g/L blend in pad bath, target 2.5% owg (25% pickup) Fabric padded et on dry, with amphoteric softener 50g/l, Line speed 36m/min, dried at 175c for 45seconds.

2) 63%polyester / 37% cotton

Fabric previously dyed Blend; 8% Ultra-fresh Silpure activator FBR-5(part A), 92%Ulra-Fresh Silpure FBR-5(part B) 45g/L Blend in bath, target 2.5% owg (55% pick up) Fabric padded wet on dry, with with amphoteric softener 50g/l ,Dried at 120C, cured at 173c for 40 seconds.

3) 86% cotton / 14% Lycra

Fabric previously dyed

Blend; 8% Ultra-Fresh Silpure activator FBR-5(part A), 92% Ultra Fresh Silpure (part B)100g/L Blend in pad bath, target 2.5% owg (25% pickup) Fabric padded et on dry, with amphoteric softener 50g/l Line speed 36m/min, dried at 175c for 45seconds.

6 Results & Discussion

5.1 Result

Fabric swathes kept in contact with individual test cultures for 24 hrs contact period showed the following results:


5.2 Discussions

5.2.1 Effect of Nano Silver without Softener

Cotton


The bacterial growth is found to be nil and results shows that it gives better protection against microbial activity.
After 30 Launderings

It gives a way for bacterial growth to some extent.

After 50 Launderings

The bacterial growth found to be higher than 30 launderings.

Cotton/Lycra

The bacterial growth is found to be nil and results shows that it gives better protection against microbial activity.
After 30 Launderings

It gives a way for bacterial growth to some extent. But it provides better protection as compared to cotton.
After 50 Launderings

The bacterial growth found to be higher than 30 launderings. The microbial growth is reduced upto 25%

PET/Cotton

The bacterial growth is found to be nil and results shows that it gives better protection against microbial activity.

After 30 Launderings

It gives a way for bacterial growth to some extent, but still it provides better protection against microbial growth as compared to Cotton and Cotton/Lycra.
After 50 Launderings

The bacterial growth found to be higher than 30 launderings. It provides better protection against microbial growth as compared to Cotton and Cotton/Lycra.

5.2.2 Effect of Nano Silver with Softener

Cotton


The bacterial growth is found to be nil and results shows that it gives better protection against microbial activity comparatively.

After 30 Launderings

The bacterial growth found to be nil, the results shows that it provides good protection against microbial growth.

After 50 Launderings

It gives a way for bacterial growth to some extent. The bacterial growth found to be higher than 30 launderings.

Cotton/Lycra

The bacterial growth is found to be nil and results shows that it gives better protection against microbial activity.

After 30 Launderings

The bacterial growth is found to be nil but it gives a way for E-Coli growth to some extent. It provides better result as compared to Cotton.
After 50 Launderings

The bacterial growth found to be nil and the E-Coli growth is higher than 30 launderings.

PET/Cotton

The bacterial growth is found to be nil and results shows that it gives better protection against microbial activity.

After 30 Launderings

The bacterial growth is found to be nil and results shows that it gives better protection against microbial activity as compared to Cotton
After 50 Launderings

The bacterial and E-Coli growth found to be nil. It provides better protection against microbial growth.
From the above results and discussions it is clearly observed that nano silver with softener gives better protection against the growth of various microorganisms even after 50 launderings.

6 Conclusion

From the above observation and result discussion it is found that the fabrics treated with nano silver and softener found to give better results compared to the fabric treated with nano silver without softener. The test result shows that synthetics and its blend provide the best antimicrobial activity. It is also found that the treatment with Nano silver and softener provides good antimicrobial properties for all kinds of fabrics. Application of nano silver succeeds because it attacks the problems of unpleasant odor, discoloration and product degradation at their source, by inhibiting the growth of micro-organisms. the antibacterial properties of nano silver provides excellent durability at a reasonable cost and also nano silver treated garments control bacterial growth even after 50 washes. Hence, nano silver treated garments; especially intimates and sportswear carry a promise of lasting cleanliness and freshness.

It can be finally concluded that the nano silver treatment gives us an edge in our market, because there has never before been anything quite as effective at delivering the long-lasting freshness that consumers demand.


7 Future Scope of the Work

Growing awareness of health and hygiene has increased the demand for bioactive or antimicrobial and UV-protecting textiles. Nano finishes being developed for textile substrates are at their infantile stage. Nano finishing can replace the traditional finishing technique of textile products of superior quality and lower production costs. The basic mechanisms and the logic of some of these finishes have been explained by the inventors. Nano Antibiotic Gel is a new-type sterilizing disinfectant for external use made with Nano silver as raw materials. It features broad spectrum, strong effect and quick sterilizing as well as long-acting sterilizing effect because silver ions for sterilizing purposes can be used repeatedly. This new gel is toxic, odorless, irritation free, grease free, comfortable and easy to use. The use of water as a solvent in synthesis of ZnO nano particles causes an immediate agglomeration due to high polarity of water.

S-MITE HIV Inhibitor™ is a proprietary form of silver nano powder that has been shown to deactivate HIV by inhibiting the virus from attaching to the host with undetectable levels of cytotoxicity. HIV medical health creams may prevent sexual transmission of HIV-1.some nano finishes such as Nano Care, Lotus Effect finish, Nano Sphere based finish and Ag Fresh have been commercialized. The commercialized viability of these finishes will be customer driven and the perception of value addition due to the additional functionality imparted by these finishes. The new concepts exploited for the development of Nano finishes have opened up exciting opportunities for further R&D. In future one can expect to see many more developments in textiles based on Nano technology.

8 References

1. Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research –Nano Finishes, M.L. GULRAJANI, vol.31, March 2006.
2. Antimicrobial Textiles- an Overview, Dr T.Ramachandran, R.Rajendran.
3. Knitting Views, September-October 2005.
4. Colourage, Mr. S.M.Sathe, September 2006.
5. Textile Magazine, P.Aravin Prince, P. Raja, December 2006.
6. Clothes Line, February 2005.
7. Text Book of Organic Chemistry, Arun Bahl, B.S.Bahl.
8. Chemical Processing Of Synthetic Fibres and Blends, Keshav V.Datye, A.A Vaidya.
9. Journal of the Textile Association, Vol.66 No: 4, November-December 2005.
10. Textile Finishing, V.A Shenai.


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