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TUM initiates "Green Carbon" project
Pic: Technical University of Munich
German Federal Ministry of Education and Research is funding a research project led by the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The project titled “Green Carbon” aims to develop manufacturing processes for polymers and carbon-based light-weight construction materials based on algae which may be utilised in sectros like aviation and automotive industry.
In combination with granite or other types of hard rock, carbon fibres make possible all-new construction and building materials. Theoretical calculations show if the carbon fibres are produced from algae oil, production of the innovative materials extracts more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than it sets free. The project is to further advance these technologies. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research has dedicated funds amounting to around 6.5 million euro for the project.
Due to their fast growth, microalgae like those cultivated in the technical algae centre at TUM’s Ludwig Bölkow Campus south of Munich can actively store the greenhouse gas CO2 in form of biomass. CO2 is mainly bound in sugars and algae oil. These can be used in chemical and biotechnological processes to produce precursors for a variety of industrial processes.
For example, oil-forming yeasts produce yeast oil from the algae sugars, which is a feedstock for sustainable plastics. Furthermore, enzymes can split the yeast oil into glycerine and free fatty acids. The free fatty acids are precursors for products like high-quality additives for lubricants, among others; the glycerine can be turned into carbon fibres.
Later in the project, the plastics will be combined with the carbon fibres to produce corresponding composite materials. “The carbon fibres produced from algae are absolutely identical to the fibres currently in use in the industry,” says project lead Thomas Brück, professor for synthetic biotechnology at TU Munich. “Therefore, they can be used for all standard processes in aviation and automotive production.”
Carbon fibres and hard rock can be used in a process of the industrial partner TechnoCarbon Technologies to produce novel construction materials. Not only do they have a negative CO2 balance, they are also lighter than aluminium and stronger than steel.
The most recent global climate report (IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C) considers manufacturing processes which use more carbon dioxide (CO2) than they release to be an important option to get climate change under control. (SV)