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Purdue University team makes battery-free wearables from cloth items

Jun '21
Pic: Purdue University photo/Rebecca McElhoe
Pic: Purdue University photo/Rebecca McElhoe
Scientists at Purdue University have found a way to transform existing cloth items into battery-free wearables resistant to laundry. These smart clothes are powered wirelessly through a flexible, silk-based coil sewn on the textile. This smart clothing will not only make one more productive but also monitor one’s health and even call for help if needed.

In the near future, all clothes will become smart. These smart cloths will outperform conventional passive garments, thanks to their miniaturised electronic circuits and sensors, which will allow one to seamlessly communicate with one’s phone, computer, car and other machines. This smart clothing will not only make one more productive but also check on one’s health status and even call for help if needed. The reason why this smart clothing is not yet available is that the fabrication of this smart clothing is quite challenging, as clothes need to be periodically washed and electronics despise water.

Purdue engineers have developed a new spray/sewing method to transform any conventional cloth items into battery-free wearables that can be cleaned in the washing machine.

"By spray-coating smart clothes with highly hydrophobic molecules, we are able to render them repellent to water, oil and mud," said Ramses Martinez, an assistant professor in Purdue's School of Industrial Engineering and in the Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering in Purdue's College of Engineering. "These smart clothes are almost impossible to stain and can be used underwater and washed in conventional washing machines without damaging the electronic components sewn on their surface."

The research is published in Nano Energy.

The rigidity of typical waterproof garments and their reduced breathability make them feel uncomfortable after being worn for a few hours.

"Thanks to their ultrathin coating, our smart clothes remain as flexible, stretchable and breathable as conventional cotton T-shirts," Martinez said.
Unlike common wearables, the Purdue smart clothes do not require batteries for powering. By simply harvesting energy from Wi-Fi or radio waves in the environment, the clothes are capable of powering the circuitry sewn on the textile.

One example is a battery-free glove that illuminates its fingertips every time the user is near a live cable to warn about the possibility of an electric shock. Another is a miniaturised cardiac monitoring system sewn on a washable sweatband capable of monitoring the health status of the wearer.

"Such wearable devices, powered by ubiquitous Wi-Fi signals, will make us not only think of clothing as just a garment that keeps us warm but also as wearable tools designed to help us in our daily life, monitor our health and protect us from accidents," Martinez said.

"I envision smart clothes will be able to transmit information about the posture and motion of the wearer to mobile apps, allowing machines to understand human intent without the need of other interfaces, expanding the way we communicate, interact with devices, and play video games."

This technology can be fabricated in conventional, large-scale sewing facilities, which are expected to accelerate the development and commercialisation of future smart clothes.

Martinez and his team have worked with the Purdue Research Foundation Office of Technology Commercialisation to protect the intellectual property. The innovations are patent pending.

Fibre2Fashion News Desk (SV)

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